Self-learning is necessary for everyone. “Learning can follow two main paths.
The first way, the most natural for the child, is connected with the development of his interaction with the environment. In addition, it often develops other aspects of his development, which, as they say, in the sum generates another educational process.
The second way implies development of independence and formation of social adaptation of the child.
Development of independence, as already mentioned, implies the need to provide freedom of choice in a variety of areas, for example, in the choice of educational programs and teachers, the choice of software. As for conditions of realization of this process, various variants are possible here: from setting tasks (if we are talking about a preschool institution, then during all time of training of the child it is necessary to set tasks connected with development of independence) to the organization of various forms of joint activity.
However, development of independent skills is more effective in this plan.
For example, the development of skills of independent learning activity at foreign language lessons assumes mastering by the child the system of roles of the teacher, the student and the listener, mastering the ways of work with all these roles, the ability to select additional materials and teaching aids independently according to the requirements and tasks of the lesson.
An effective means of developing such activity is verbal drawing, the method of oral storytelling, various drama games, techniques of reproductive drawing, work with reproductions of pictures, visual compositions, group and individual work with a text, written exercises, etc.
The development of the skills of productive activity is also of great importance. Independent work on assimilation of grammatical rules, on composing coherent texts, on creating projects, on solving creative tasks, on modeling different situations, on search activity, etc., not accompanied by any restrictions, allows the child to develop several very important abilities and skills. Thus, in this context, the increased role of problem-based learning after the introduction of the FSES, which is characterized by reflection of the educational process, its reflection and refinement at each stage, becomes clear.
The important methods and ways of development of independence of children of primary school age include games-competitions. In them a child can show his or her creative abilities, test the ability to plan his or her activities, while solving problems of development of the emotional sphere, attention and memory, imagination, etc.; educational games, in which ways of perception of educational subjects and ways of learning activities are practiced, as well as a number of rules and rules of self-control.